Indiana Historical Map: Conflict in the Northwest Territory

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History Map: Defined
A historical map represents the different times in history. This type of map may have details such as the sides that fought in a war, or the territory that was gained in a battle. A history map also shows territories in that were taken over in a certain period, paths that explorers blazed or even areas that played a part in notable times- such as The California Gold Rush.
India

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: India
Background:
 
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century. By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually brought about independence in 1947. Communal violence led to the subcontinent's bloody partition, which resulted in the creation of two separate states, India and Pakistan. The two countries have fought three wars since independence, the last of which in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 caused Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists allegedly originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, rapid economic development is fueling India's rise on the world stage. In January 2011, India assumed a nonpermanent seat in the UN Security Council for the 2011-12 term.
Geography :: India
Location:
 
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
20 00 N, 77 00 E
 
Map references:
 
Asia
 
Area:
 
total: 3,287,263 sq km
country comparison to the world: 7
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 14,103 km
border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
 
Coastline:
 
7,000 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 
Climate:
 
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
 
Terrain:
 
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
 
Natural resources:
 
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 48.83%
permanent crops: 2.8%
other: 48.37% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
622,860 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
1,907.8 cu km (1999)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 645.84 cu km/yr (8%/5%/86%)
per capita: 585 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
volcanism: Barren Island (elev. 354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years
 
Environment - current issues:
 
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Geography - note:
 
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
People :: India
Population:
 
1,189,172,906 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 29.7% (male 187,450,635/female 165,415,758)
15-64 years: 64.9% (male 398,757,331/female 372,719,379)
65 years and over: 5.5% (male 30,831,190/female 33,998,613) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 26.2 years
male: 25.6 years
female: 26.9 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
1.344% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
 
Birth rate:
 
20.97 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
 
Death rate:
 
7.48 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
 
Net migration rate:
 
-0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 30% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
NEW DELHI (capital) 21.72 million; Mumbai 19.695 million; Kolkata 15.294 million; Chennai 7.416 million; Bangalore 7.079 million (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 47.57 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 52
male: 46.18 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 49.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 66.8 years
country comparison to the world: 160
male: 65.77 years
female: 67.95 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
2.62 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
0.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
2.4 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
170,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: leptospirosis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 88% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 12% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 54% of population
rural: 21% of population
total: 31% of population
unimproved:
urban: 46% of population
rural: 79% of population
total: 69% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
 
Religions:
 
Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)
 
Languages:
 
Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61%
male: 73.4%
female: 47.8% (2001 census)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 10 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2007)
 
Education expenditures:
 
3.1% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 129

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