Canada: Political Map

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Political Map: Defined
Political Maps are designed to show governmental boundaries of countries, states, and counties. This type of map is generally vivid in color to help identify boundaries more easily. When viewing a Physical Map, the locations of major cities as well as many minor cities are found. Also included on Physical Maps are significant bodies of water such as lakes, reservoirs and rivers.
Canada

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Canada
Background:
 
A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the World's longest unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, and education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.
Geography :: Canada
Location:
 
Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
60 00 N, 95 00 W
 
Map references:
 
North America
 
Area:
 
total: 9,984,670 sq km
country comparison to the world: 2
land: 9,093,507 sq km
water: 891,163 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly larger than the US
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
note: Canada is the World's largest country that borders only one country
 
Coastline:
 
202,080 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 
Climate:
 
varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
 
Terrain:
 
mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
 
Natural resources:
 
iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 4.57%
permanent crops: 0.65%
other: 94.78% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
8,550 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
3,300 cu km (1985)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 44.72 cu km/yr (20%/69%/12%)
per capita: 1,386 cu m/yr (1996)
 
Natural hazards:
 
continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant
 
Environment - current issues:
 
air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation
 
Geography - note:
 
second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border
People :: Canada
Population:
 
34,030,589 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 15.7% (male 2,736,737/female 2,602,342)
15-64 years: 68.5% (male 11,776,611/female 11,517,972)
65 years and over: 15.9% (male 2,372,356/female 3,024,571) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 41 years
male: 39.8 years
female: 42.1 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
0.794% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
 
Birth rate:
 
10.28 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
 
Death rate:
 
7.98 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
 
Net migration rate:
 
5.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 81% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
Toronto 5.377 million; Montreal 3.75 million; Vancouver 2.197 million; OTTAWA (capital) 1.17 million; Calgary 1.16 million (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.056 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 4.92 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 183
male: 5.26 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 81.38 years
country comparison to the world: 12
male: 78.81 years
female: 84.1 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
1.58 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
0.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
68,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
 
Religions:
 
Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)
 
Languages:
 
English (official) 58.8%, French (official) 21.6%, other 19.6% (2006 Census)
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 17 years (2004)
 
Education expenditures:
 
4.9% of GDP (2007)
country comparison to the world: 64

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