China in the Qing Dynasty Map, 1644-1911

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History Map: Defined
A historical map represents the different times in history. This type of map may have details such as the sides that fought in a war, or the territory that was gained in a battle. A history map also shows territories in that were taken over in a certain period, paths that explorers blazed or even areas that played a part in notable times- such as The California Gold Rush.
China
(also see separate Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan entries)

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: China
Background:
 
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. China since the early 1990s has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.
Geography :: China
Location:
 
Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
35 00 N, 105 00 E
 
Map references:
 
Asia
 
Area:
 
total: 9,596,961 sq km
country comparison to the world: 4
land: 9,569,901 sq km
water: 27,060 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly smaller than the US
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 22,117 km
border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Macau 0.34 km
 
Coastline:
 
14,500 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 
Climate:
 
extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
 
Terrain:
 
mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
 
Natural resources:
 
coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 14.86%
permanent crops: 1.27%
other: 83.87% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
641,410 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
2,829.6 cu km (1999)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 549.76 cu km/yr (7%/26%/68%)
per capita: 415 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
 
Environment - current issues:
 
air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Geography - note:
 
world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak
People :: China
Population:
 
1,336,718,015 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 17.6% (male 126,634,384/female 108,463,142)
15-64 years: 73.6% (male 505,326,577/female 477,953,883)
65 years and over: 8.9% (male 56,823,028/female 61,517,001) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 35.5 years
male: 34.9 years
female: 36.2 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
0.493% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
 
Birth rate:
 
12.29 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
 
Death rate:
 
7.03 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
 
Net migration rate:
 
-0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 47% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
Shanghai 16.575 million; BEIJING (capital) 12.214 million; Chongqing 9.401 million; Shenzhen 9.005 million; Guangzhou 8.884 million (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.133 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 16.06 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 112
male: 15.61 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 74.68 years
country comparison to the world: 95
male: 72.68 years
female: 76.94 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
1.54 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
740,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
26,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever
soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 82% of population
total: 89% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 18% of population
total: 11% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 58% of population
rural: 52% of population
total: 55% of population
unimproved:
urban: 42% of population
rural: 48% of population
total: 45% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uighur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5% (2000 census)
 
Religions:
 
Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%
note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
 
Languages:
 
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
note: Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.2%
male: 96%
female: 88.5% (2008 census)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2009)
 
Education expenditures:
 
NA

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