Bosnia and Herzegovina Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Bosnia and Herzegovina

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Background:
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Dayton Accords also established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country. EUFOR's mission changed from peacekeeping to civil policing in October 2007, with its presence reduced from nearly 7,000 to less than 2,500 troops. Troop strength at the end of 2010 stood at roughly 1,500. In January 2010, Bosnia and Herzegovina assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2010-11 term.
Geography :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Location:
 
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
44 00 N, 18 00 E
 
Map references:
 
Europe
 
Area:
 
total: 51,197 sq km
country comparison to the world: 129
land: 51,187 sq km
water: 10 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly smaller than West Virginia
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 1,538 km
border countries: Croatia 932 km, Montenegro 249 km, Serbia 357 km
 
Coastline:
 
20 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
no data available
 
Climate:
 
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
 
Terrain:
 
mountains and valleys
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
 
Natural resources:
 
coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 19.61%
permanent crops: 1.89%
other: 78.5% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
30 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
37.5 cu km (2003)
 
Natural hazards:
 
destructive earthquakes
 
Environment - current issues:
 
air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Geography - note:
 
within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east
People :: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Population:
 
4,622,163 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 14% (male 333,989/female 313,234)
15-64 years: 71% (male 1,655,669/female 1,625,750)
65 years and over: 15% (male 283,233/female 410,288) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 40.7 years
male: 39.6 years
female: 41.9 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
0.008% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
 
Birth rate:
 
8.89 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
 
Death rate:
 
8.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
 
Net migration rate:
 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 49% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
SARAJEVO (capital) 392,000 (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.074 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 8.67 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 155
male: 9.95 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 78.81 years
country comparison to the world: 45
male: 75.25 years
female: 82.63 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
1.27 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
900 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
100 (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 98% of population
total: 99% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 2% of population
total: 1% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 92% of population
total: 95% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 8% of population
total: 5% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam
 
Religions:
 
Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%
 
Languages:
 
Bosnian (official), Croatian (official), Serbian
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.7%
male: 99%
female: 94.4% (2000 est.)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2009)
 
Education expenditures:
 
NA

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