Brazil Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Brazil

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Brazil
Background:
 
Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than half a century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader, one of the first in the area to begin an economic recovery. Highly unequal income distribution and crime remain pressing problems. In January 2010, Brazil assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2010-11 term.
Geography :: Brazil
Location:
 
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
10 00 S, 55 00 W
 
Map references:
 
South America
 
Area:
 
total: 8,514,877 sq km
country comparison to the world: 5
land: 8,459,417 sq km
water: 55,460 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly smaller than the US
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 16,885 km
border countries: Argentina 1,261 km, Bolivia 3,423 km, Colombia 1,644 km, French Guiana 730 km, Guyana 1,606 km, Paraguay 1,365 km, Peru 2,995 km, Suriname 593 km, Uruguay 1,068 km, Venezuela 2,200 km
 
Coastline:
 
7,491 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
 
Climate:
 
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
 
Terrain:
 
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
 
Natural resources:
 
bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 6.93%
permanent crops: 0.89%
other: 92.18% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
45,000 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
8,233 cu km (2000)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 59.3 cu km/yr (20%/18%/62%)
per capita: 318 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
 
Environment - current issues:
 
deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Geography - note:
 
largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
People :: Brazil
Population:
 
203,429,773 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
note: Brazil conducted a census in August 2000, which reported a population of 169,872,855; that figure was about 3.8% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 26.2% (male 27,219,651/female 26,180,040)
15-64 years: 67% (male 67,524,642/female 68,809,357)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 5,796,433/female 7,899,650) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 29.3 years
male: 28.5 years
female: 30.1 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
1.134% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
 
Birth rate:
 
17.79 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
 
Death rate:
 
6.36 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
 
Net migration rate:
 
-0.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 87% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
Sao Paulo 19.96 million; Rio de Janeiro 11.836 million; Belo Horizonte 5.736 million; Porto Alegre 4.034 million; BRASILIA (capital) 3.789 million (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 21.17 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 93
male: 24.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 72.53 years
country comparison to the world: 124
male: 68.97 years
female: 76.27 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
2.18 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
NA
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
NA
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
NA
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 97% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 3% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 87% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 80% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 20% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
white 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7% (2000 census)
 
Religions:
 
Roman Catholic (nominal) 73.6%, Protestant 15.4%, Spiritualist 1.3%, Bantu/voodoo 0.3%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.2%, none 7.4% (2000 census)
 
Languages:
 
Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.6%
male: 88.4%
female: 88.8% (2004 est.)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2008)
 
Education expenditures:
 
5.08% of GDP (2007)
country comparison to the world: 55

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