Colombia Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Colombia

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Colombia
Background:
 
Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A four-decade long conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and violence has been decreasing since about 2002. However, insurgents continue attacks against civilians and large areas of the countryside are under guerrilla influence or are contested by security forces. More than 31,000 former paramilitaries had demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) as a formal organization had ceased to function. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, emerging criminal groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its administrative departments. However, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders. In January 2011, Colombia assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2011-12 term.
Geography :: Colombia
Location:
 
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
4 00 N, 72 00 W
 
Map references:
 
South America
 
Area:
 
total: 1,138,910 sq km
country comparison to the world: 26
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 6,309 km
border countries: Brazil 1,644 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,800 km, Venezuela 2,050 km
 
Coastline:
 
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
 
Maritime claims:
 
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 
Climate:
 
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
 
Terrain:
 
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
 
Natural resources:
 
petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 2.01%
permanent crops: 1.37%
other: 96.62% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
9,000 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
2,132 cu km (2000)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 10.71 cu km/yr (50%/4%/46%)
per capita: 235 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
volcanism: Galeras (elev. 4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (elev. 5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace
 
Environment - current issues:
 
deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
 
Geography - note:
 
only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
People :: Colombia
Population:
 
44,725,543 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 26.7% (male 6,109,495/female 5,834,273)
15-64 years: 67.2% (male 14,826,008/female 15,208,799)
65 years and over: 6.1% (male 1,159,691/female 1,587,277) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 28 years
male: 27 years
female: 28.9 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
1.156% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
 
Birth rate:
 
17.49 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
 
Death rate:
 
5.26 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
 
Net migration rate:
 
-0.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 75% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
BOGOTA (capital) 8.262 million; Medellin 3.497 million; Cali 2.352 million; Barranquilla 1.836 million; Bucaramanga 1.065 million (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 16.39 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 108
male: 19.92 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 74.55 years
country comparison to the world: 97
male: 71.27 years
female: 78.03 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
2.15 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
0.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
160,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
14,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 73% of population
total: 92% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 27% of population
total: 8% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 81% of population
rural: 55% of population
total: 74% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19% of population
rural: 45% of population
total: 26% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
 
Religions:
 
Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%
 
Languages:
 
Spanish (official)
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 90.1%
female: 90.7% (2005 census)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2009)
 
Education expenditures:
 
4.8% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 70

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