Ethiopia Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Ethiopia

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Ethiopia
Background:
 
Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission remotely demarcated the border by geographical coordinates, but final demarcation of the boundary on the ground is currently on hold because of Ethiopian objections to an international commission's finding requiring it to surrender territory considered sensitive to Ethiopia.
Geography :: Ethiopia
Location:
 
Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
8 00 N, 38 00 E
 
Map references:
 
Africa
 
Area:
 
total: 1,104,300 sq km
country comparison to the world: 27
land: 1 million sq km
water: 104,300 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 5,328 km
border countries: Djibouti 349 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, South Sudan 837 km, Sudan 769 km
 
Coastline:
 
0 km (landlocked)
 
Maritime claims:
 
none (landlocked)
 
Climate:
 
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
 
Terrain:
 
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m
highest point: Ras Dejen 4,533 m
 
Natural resources:
 
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 10.01%
permanent crops: 0.65%
other: 89.34% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
2,900 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
110 cu km (1987)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 5.56 cu km/yr (6%/0%/94%)
per capita: 72 cu m/yr (2002)
 
Natural hazards:
 
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
volcanism: Ethiopia experiences volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (elev. 613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, causing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir
 
Environment - current issues:
 
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
 
Geography - note:
 
landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean
People :: Ethiopia
Population:
 
90,873,739 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 46.3% (male 20,990,369/female 21,067,961)
15-64 years: 51% (male 22,707,235/female 23,682,385)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 1,037,488/female 1,388,301) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 16.8 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 17.1 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
3.194% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
 
Birth rate:
 
42.99 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
 
Death rate:
 
11.04 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
 
Net migration rate:
 
-0.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population
country comparison to the world: 115
note: repatriation of Ethiopian refugees residing in Sudan is expected to continue for several years; some Sudanese, Somali, and Eritrean refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return to their homes (2011 est.)
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 17% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
ADDIS ABABA (capital) 2.863 million (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 77.12 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 17
male: 88.03 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 56.19 years
country comparison to the world: 195
male: 53.64 years
female: 58.81 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
6.02 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
NA
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
NA
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
NA
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 26% of population
total: 38% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 74% of population
total: 62% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 29% of population
rural: 8% of population
total: 12% of population
unimproved:
urban: 71% of population
rural: 92% of population
total: 88% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Oromo 34.5%, Amara 26.9%, Somalie 6.2%, Tigraway 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Guragie 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Affar 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, other 11.3% (2007 Census)
 
Religions:
 
Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.6%, traditional 2.6%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.7% (2007 Census)
 
Languages:
 
Amarigna (Amharic) (official) 32.7%, Oromigna (official regional) 31.6%, Tigrigna (official regional) 6.1%, Somaligna 6%, Guaragigna 3.5%, Sidamigna 3.5%, Hadiyigna 1.7%, other 14.8%, English (official) (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (official) (1994 census)
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.7%
male: 50.3%
female: 35.1% (2003 est.)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2008)
 
Education expenditures:
 
5.5% of GDP (2007)
country comparison to the world: 42

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