Ghana Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Ghana

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Ghana
Background:
 
Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a long series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS took over as head of state in early 2009.
Geography :: Ghana
Location:
 
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
8 00 N, 2 00 W
 
Map references:
 
Africa
 
Area:
 
total: 238,533 sq km
country comparison to the world: 82
land: 227,533 sq km
water: 11,000 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly smaller than Oregon
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 2,094 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
 
Coastline:
 
539 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
 
Climate:
 
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
 
Terrain:
 
mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 885 m
 
Natural resources:
 
gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 17.54%
permanent crops: 9.22%
other: 73.24% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
340 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
53.2 cu km (2001)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 0.98 cu km/yr (24%/10%/66%)
per capita: 44 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
 
Environment - current issues:
 
recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
 
Geography - note:
 
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
People :: Ghana
Population:
 
24,791,073 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 36.5% (male 4,568,273/female 4,468,939)
15-64 years: 60% (male 7,435,449/female 7,436,204)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 399,737/female 482,471) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 21.4 years
male: 21.1 years
female: 21.6 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
1.822% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
 
Birth rate:
 
27.55 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
 
Death rate:
 
8.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
 
Net migration rate:
 
-0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 51% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
ACCRA (capital) 2.269 million; Kumasi 1.773 million (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 48.55 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 51
male: 51.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 45.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 61 years
country comparison to the world: 185
male: 59.78 years
female: 62.25 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
3.48 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
1.8% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
260,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
18,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 90% of population
rural: 74% of population
total: 82% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10% of population
rural: 26% of population
total: 18% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 18% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 13% of population
unimproved:
urban: 82% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 87% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Akan 45.3%, Mole-Dagbon 15.2%, Ewe 11.7%, Ga-Dangme 7.3%, Guan 4%, Gurma 3.6%, Grusi 2.6%, Mande-Busanga 1%, other tribes 1.4%, other 7.8% (2000 census)
 
Religions:
 
Christian 68.8% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 24.1%, Protestant 18.6%, Catholic 15.1%, other 11%), Muslim 15.9%, traditional 8.5%, other 0.7%, none 6.1% (2000 census)
 
Languages:
 
Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other (includes English (official)) 36.1% (2000 census)
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.9%
male: 66.4%
female: 49.8% (2000 census)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 10 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2009)
 
Education expenditures:
 
5.4% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 46

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