Haiti Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Haiti

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Haiti
Background:
 
The native Taino Amerindians - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first black republic to declare independence in 1804. The poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the forced resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE in February 2004, an interim government took office to organize new elections under the auspices of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Continued violence and technical delays prompted repeated postponements, but Haiti finally did inaugurate a democratically elected president and parliament in May of 2006. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 15 km southwest of the capital, Port-au-Prince. An estimated 2 million people lived within the zone of heavy to moderate structural damage. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years and massive international assistance will be required to help the country recover.
Geography :: Haiti
Location:
 
Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
19 00 N, 72 25 W
 
Map references:
 
Central America and the Caribbean
 
Area:
 
total: 27,750 sq km
country comparison to the world: 148
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly smaller than Maryland
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 360 km
border countries: Dominican Republic 360 km
 
Coastline:
 
1,771 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
 
Climate:
 
tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
 
Terrain:
 
mostly rough and mountainous
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m
 
Natural resources:
 
bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 28.11%
permanent crops: 11.53%
other: 60.36% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
920 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
14 cu km (2000)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 0.99 cu km/yr (5%/1%/94%)
per capita: 116 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
 
Environment - current issues:
 
extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes
 
Geography - note:
 
shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)
People :: Haiti
Population:
 
9,719,932 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 35.9% (male 1,748,677/female 1,742,199)
15-64 years: 60.1% (male 2,898,251/female 2,947,272)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 170,584/female 212,949) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 21.4 years
male: 21.1 years
female: 21.6 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
0.787%
country comparison to the world: 136
note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2011 est.)
 
Birth rate:
 
24.4 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
 
Death rate:
 
8.21 deaths/1,000 population
country comparison to the world: 94
note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (July 2011 est.)
 
Net migration rate:
 
-8.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 52% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) 2.143 million (2010)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.011 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 54.02 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 42
male: 58.16 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 49.83 deaths/1,000 live births
note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 62.17 years
country comparison to the world: 181
male: 60.84 years
female: 63.53 years
note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
3.07 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
1.9% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
120,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
7,100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 71% of population
rural: 55% of population
total: 63% of population
unimproved:
urban: 29% of population
rural: 45% of population
total: 37% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 24% of population
rural: 10% of population
total: 17% of population
unimproved:
urban: 76% of population
rural: 90% of population
total: 83% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Haitian(s)
adjective: Haitian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
black 95%, mulatto and white 5%
 
Religions:
 
Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3%
note: roughly half of the population practices voodoo
 
Languages:
 
French (official), Creole (official)
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 52.9%
male: 54.8%
female: 51.2% (2003 est.)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
NA
 
Education expenditures:
 
NA

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