Indonesia Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Indonesia

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Indonesia
Background:
 
The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. Free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999 after decades of repressive rule. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance by the separatist Free Papua Movement.
Geography :: Indonesia
Location:
 
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
5 00 S, 120 00 E
 
Map references:
 
Southeast Asia
 
Area:
 
total: 1,904,569 sq km
country comparison to the world: 15
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
 
Coastline:
 
54,716 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 
Climate:
 
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
 
Terrain:
 
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
 
Natural resources:
 
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 11.03%
permanent crops: 7.04%
other: 81.93% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
67,220 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
2,838 cu km (1999)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 82.78 cu km/yr (8%/1%/91%)
per capita: 372 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, western Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
 
Environment - current issues:
 
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
 
Geography - note:
 
archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
People :: Indonesia
Population:
 
245,613,043 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 27.3% (male 34,165,213/female 32,978,841)
15-64 years: 66.5% (male 82,104,636/female 81,263,055)
65 years and over: 6.1% (male 6,654,695/female 8,446,603) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 28.2 years
male: 27.7 years
female: 28.7 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
1.069% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
 
Birth rate:
 
18.1 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
 
Death rate:
 
6.26 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
 
Net migration rate:
 
-1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 44% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
JAKARTA (capital) 9.121 million; Surabaya 2.509 million; Bandung 2.412 million; Medan 2.131 million; Semarang 1.296 million (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 27.95 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 72
male: 32.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.03 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 71.33 years
country comparison to the world: 137
male: 68.8 years
female: 73.99 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
2.25 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
0.2% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
310,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
8,300 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 89% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 80% of population
unimproved:
urban: 11% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 20% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 67% of population
rural: 36% of population
total: 52% of population
unimproved:
urban: 33% of population
rural: 64% of population
total: 48% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)
 
Religions:
 
Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
 
Languages:
 
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 94%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2009)
 
Education expenditures:
 
2.8% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 139

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