Nigeria Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Nigeria

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Nigeria
Background:
 
British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history. In January 2010, Nigeria assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2010-11 term.
Geography :: Nigeria
Location:
 
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
10 00 N, 8 00 E
 
Map references:
 
Africa
 
Area:
 
total: 923,768 sq km
country comparison to the world: 32
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly more than twice the size of California
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
 
Coastline:
 
853 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 
Climate:
 
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
 
Terrain:
 
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
 
Natural resources:
 
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 33.02%
permanent crops: 3.14%
other: 63.84% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
2,930 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
286.2 cu km (2003)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 8.01 cu km/yr (21%/10%/69%)
per capita: 61 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
periodic droughts; flooding
 
Environment - current issues:
 
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Geography - note:
 
the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
People :: Nigeria
Population:
 
155,215,573 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 40.9% (male 32,476,681/female 31,064,539)
15-64 years: 55.9% (male 44,296,228/female 42,534,542)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 2,341,228/female 2,502,355) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 19.2 years
male: 19.2 years
female: 19.3 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
1.935% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
 
Birth rate:
 
35.51 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
 
Death rate:
 
16.06 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
 
Net migration rate:
 
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 50% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
Lagos 10.203 million; Kano 3.304 million; Ibadan 2.762 million; ABUJA (capital) 1.857 million; Kaduna 1.519 million (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 91.54 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 10
male: 97.42 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 85.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 47.56 years
country comparison to the world: 219
male: 46.76 years
female: 48.41 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
4.73 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
3.6% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
3.3 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
220,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and yellow fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly endemic areas for Lassa fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis and shistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 75% of population
rural: 42% of population
total: 58% of population
unimproved:
urban: 25% of population
rural: 58% of population
total: 42% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 36% of population
rural: 28% of population
total: 32% of population
unimproved:
urban: 67% of population
rural: 72% of population
total: 68% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
 
Religions:
 
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
 
Languages:
 
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68%
male: 75.7%
female: 60.6% (2003 est.)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2005)
 
Education expenditures:
 
NA

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