Russia Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Russia

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Russia
Background:
 
Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened Communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Since then, Russia has shifted its post-Soviet democratic ambitions in favor of a centralized semi-authoritarian state whose legitimacy is buttressed, in part, by carefully managed national elections, former President PUTIN's genuine popularity, and the prudent management of Russia's windfall energy wealth. Russia has severely disabled a Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.
Geography :: Russia
Location:
 
Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
60 00 N, 100 00 E
 
Map references:
 
Asia
 
Area:
 
total: 17,098,242 sq km
country comparison to the world: 1
land: 16,377,742 sq km
water: 720,500 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
approximately 1.8 times the size of the US
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 20,241.5 km
border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 290 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 17.5 km, Latvia 292 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 196 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 432 km, Ukraine 1,576 km
 
Coastline:
 
37,653 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 
Climate:
 
ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
 
Terrain:
 
broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m
 
Natural resources:
 
wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber
note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 7.17%
permanent crops: 0.11%
other: 92.72% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
43,460 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
4,498 cu km (1997)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 76.68 cu km/yr (19%/63%/18%)
per capita: 535 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia
volcanism: Russia experiences significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (elev. 4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, have been deemed "Decade Volcanoes" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky
 
Environment - current issues:
 
air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
 
Geography - note:
 
largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak
People :: Russia
Population:
 
138,739,892 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 15.2% (male 10,818,203/female 10,256,611)
15-64 years: 71.8% (male 47,480,851/female 52,113,279)
65 years and over: 13% (male 5,456,639/female 12,614,309) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 38.7 years
male: 35.5 years
female: 41.9 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
-0.47% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 222
 
Birth rate:
 
11.05 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
 
Death rate:
 
16.04 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
 
Net migration rate:
 
0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 73% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: -0.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
MOSCOW (capital) 10.523 million; Saint Petersburg 4.575 million; Novosibirsk 1.397 million; Yekaterinburg 1.344 million; Nizhniy Novgorod 1.267 million (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.44 male(s)/female
total population: 0.85 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 10.08 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 147
male: 11.58 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 66.29 years
country comparison to the world: 161
male: 59.8 years
female: 73.17 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
1.42 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
980,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
NA
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 89% of population
total: 96% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 11% of population
total: 4% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 93% of population
rural: 70% of population
total: 87% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7% of population
rural: 30% of population
total: 13% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Russian(s)
adjective: Russian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002 census)
 
Religions:
 
Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)
note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule
 
Languages:
 
Russian (official), many minority languages
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2002 census)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2008)
 
Education expenditures:
 
3.9% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 107

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