Rwanda Political Map

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Political Map: Defined
Political Maps are designed to show governmental boundaries of countries, states, and counties. This type of map is generally vivid in color to help identify boundaries more easily. When viewing a Physical Map, the locations of major cities as well as many minor cities are found. Also included on Physical Maps are significant bodies of water such as lakes, reservoirs and rivers.
Rwanda

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Rwanda
Background:
 
In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed up to a million of their fellow citizens, including approximately three-quarters of the Tutsi population. The genocide ended later that same year when the predominantly Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias, and established an RPF-led government of national unity. Approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC; the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF tried in 1990. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda in 2009 staged a joint military operation with the Congolese Army in DRC to rout out the Hutu extremist insurgency there and Kigali and Kinshasa restored diplomatic relations. Rwanda also joined the Commonwealth in late 2009.
Geography :: Rwanda
Location:
 
Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
2 00 S, 30 00 E
 
Map references:
 
Africa
 
Area:
 
total: 26,338 sq km
country comparison to the world: 149
land: 24,668 sq km
water: 1,670 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly smaller than Maryland
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 893 km
border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km
 
Coastline:
 
0 km (landlocked)
 
Maritime claims:
 
none (landlocked)
 
Climate:
 
temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
 
Terrain:
 
mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
 
Natural resources:
 
gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 45.56%
permanent crops: 10.25%
other: 44.19% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
90 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
5.2 cu km (2003)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 0.15 cu km/yr (24%/8%/68%)
per capita: 17 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
volcanism: Visoke (elev. 3,711 m), located on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the country's only historically active volcano
 
Environment - current issues:
 
deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
 
Geography - note:
 
landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural
People :: Rwanda
Population:
 
11,370,425 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 42.9% (male 2,454,924/female 2,418,504)
15-64 years: 54.7% (male 3,097,956/female 3,123,910)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 110,218/female 164,913) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 18.7 years
male: 18.5 years
female: 19 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
2.792% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
 
Birth rate:
 
36.74 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
 
Death rate:
 
9.88 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
 
Net migration rate:
 
1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 19% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 4.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
KIGALI (capital) 909,000 (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 64.04 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 25
male: 67.64 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 60.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 58.02 years
country comparison to the world: 192
male: 56.57 years
female: 59.52 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
4.9 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
2.9% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
170,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
4,100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 77% of population
rural: 62% of population
total: 65% of population
unimproved:
urban: 23% of population
rural: 38% of population
total: 35% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 50% of population
rural: 55% of population
total: 54% of population
unimproved:
urban: 50% of population
rural: 45% of population
total: 46% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Hutu (Bantu) 84%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%
 
Religions:
 
Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)
 
Languages:
 
Kinyarwanda (official, universal Bantu vernacular), French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili, used in commercial centers)
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.4%
male: 76.3%
female: 64.7% (2003 est.)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2009)
 
Education expenditures:
 
4.1% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 101
 
People - note:
 
Rwanda is the most densely populated country in Africa

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