Sao Tome and Principe Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Sao Tome and Principe

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Sao Tome and Principe
Background:
 
Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. While independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The country held its first free elections in 1991, but frequent internal wrangling between the various political parties precipitated repeated changes in leadership and two failed coup attempts in 1995 and 2003. The recent discovery of oil in the Gulf of Guinea promises to attract increased attention to the small island nation.
Geography :: Sao Tome and Principe
Location:
 
Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the Equator, west of Gabon
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
1 00 N, 7 00 E
 
Map references:
 
Africa
 
Area:
 
total: 964 sq km
country comparison to the world: 185
land: 964 sq km
water: 0 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
more than five times the size of Washington, DC
 
Land boundaries:
 
0 km
 
Coastline:
 
209 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 
Climate:
 
tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
 
Terrain:
 
volcanic, mountainous
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m
 
Natural resources:
 
fish, hydropower
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 8.33%
permanent crops: 48.96%
other: 42.71% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
100 sq km (2008)
 
Natural hazards:
 
NA
 
Environment - current issues:
 
deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Geography - note:
 
the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are mountainous
People :: Sao Tome and Principe
Population:
 
179,506 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 44.7% (male 40,777/female 39,386)
15-64 years: 52.2% (male 46,114/female 47,509)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 2,634/female 3,086) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 17.5 years
male: 17.1 years
female: 18 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
2.052% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
 
Birth rate:
 
38.03 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
 
Death rate:
 
8.18 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
 
Net migration rate:
 
-9.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 62% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
SAO TOME (capital) 60,000 (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 53.21 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 43
male: 55.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 63.11 years
country comparison to the world: 175
male: 61.93 years
female: 64.33 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
5.08 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
NA
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
NA
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
NA
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 89% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 89% of population
unimproved:
urban: 11% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 11% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 30% of population
rural: 19% of population
total: 26% of population
unimproved:
urban: 70% of population
rural: 81% of population
total: 74% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Sao Tomean(s)
adjective: Sao Tomean
 
Ethnic groups:
 
mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
 
Religions:
 
Catholic 70.3%, Evangelical 3.4%, New Apostolic 2%, Adventist 1.8%, other 3.1%, none 19.4% (2001 census)
 
Languages:
 
Portuguese (official)
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 84.9%
male: 92.2%
female: 77.9% (2001 census)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2010)
 
Education expenditures:
 
NA

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