Serbia Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Serbia

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Serbia
Background:
 
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germany's occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip "TITO" Broz (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945. Although Communist, TITO's new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions were ultimately unsuccessful and led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999, to the withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999, and to the stationing of a NATO-led force in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the region's ethnic communities. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosovo in January 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, the UN-administered province of Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo.
Geography :: Serbia
Location:
 
Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
44 00 N, 21 00 E
 
Map references:
 
Europe
 
Area:
 
total: 77,474 sq km
country comparison to the world: 117
land: 77,474 sq km
water: 0 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly smaller than South Carolina
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 2,026 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Kosovo 352 km, Macedonia 62 km, Montenegro 124 km, Romania 476 km
 
Coastline:
 
0 km (landlocked)
 
Maritime claims:
 
none (landlocked)
 
Climate:
 
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
 
Terrain:
 
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m
highest point: Midzor 2,169 m
 
Natural resources:
 
oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
 
Land use:
 
arable land: NA
permanent crops: NA
other: NA
 
Irrigated land:
 
890 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
208.5 cu km (note - includes Kosovo) (2003)
 
Natural hazards:
 
destructive earthquakes
 
Environment - current issues:
 
air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Geography - note:
 
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East
People :: Serbia
Population:
 
7,310,555 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
note: does not include the population of Kosovo
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 15.1% (male 567,757/female 532,604)
15-64 years: 68.5% (male 2,503,490/female 2,500,949)
65 years and over: 16.5% (male 493,436/female 712,319) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 41.3 years
male: 39.6 years
female: 43.1 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
-0.467% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 221
 
Birth rate:
 
9.19 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
 
Death rate:
 
13.85 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
 
Net migration rate:
 
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 56% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
BELGRADE (capital) 1.115 million (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.065 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and above: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 6.52 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 171
male: 7.53 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 74.32 years
country comparison to the world: 102
male: 71.49 years
female: 77.34 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
1.4 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
6,400 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne disease: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 98% of population
total: 99% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 2% of population
total: 1% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 92% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 8% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Serb(s)
adjective: Serbian
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census)
 
Religions:
 
Serbian Orthodox 85%, Catholic 5.5%, Protestant 1.1%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or atheist 2.6% (2002 census)
 
Languages:
 
Serbian (official) 88.3%, Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9% (2002 census)
note: Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Croatian all official in Vojvodina
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.9%
female: 94.1% (2003 census)
note: includes Montenegro
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2009)
 
Education expenditures:
 
4.7% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 73

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