Sri Lanka Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Sri Lanka

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Sri Lanka
Background:
 
The first Sinhalese arrived in Sri Lanka late in the 6th century B.C., probably from northern India. Buddhism was introduced in about the mid-third century B.C., and a great civilization developed at the cities of Anuradhapura (kingdom from circa 200 B.C. to circa A.D. 1000) and Polonnaruwa (from about 1070 to 1200). In the 14th century, a south Indian dynasty established a Tamil kingdom in northern Sri Lanka. The coastal areas of the island were controlled by the Portuguese in the 16th century and by the Dutch in the 17th century. The island was ceded to the British in 1796, became a crown colony in 1802, and was formally united under British rule by 1815. As Ceylon, it became independent in 1948; its name was changed to Sri Lanka in 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted into war in 1983. After two decades of fighting, the government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) formalized a cease-fire in February 2002 with Norway brokering peace negotiations. Violence between the LTTE and government forces intensified in 2006, but the government regained control of the Eastern Province in 2007. By May 2009, the government announced that its military had defeated the remnants of the LTTE. Since the end of the conflict, the government has resettled tens of thousands of internally displaced persons and has undertaken a number of massive infrastructure projects to reconstruct its economy.
Geography :: Sri Lanka
Location:
 
Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
7 00 N, 81 00 E
 
Map references:
 
Asia
 
Area:
 
total: 65,610 sq km
country comparison to the world: 122
land: 64,630 sq km
water: 980 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly larger than West Virginia
 
Land boundaries:
 
0 km
 
Coastline:
 
1,340 km
 
Maritime claims:
 
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 
Climate:
 
tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)
 
Terrain:
 
mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m
 
Natural resources:
 
limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay, hydropower
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 13.96%
permanent crops: 15.24%
other: 70.8% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
5,700 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
50 cu km (1999)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 12.61 cu km/yr (2%/2%/95%)
per capita: 608 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
occasional cyclones and tornadoes
 
Environment - current issues:
 
deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution in Colombo
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
 
Geography - note:
 
strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes
People :: Sri Lanka
Population:
 
21,283,913 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 24.9% (male 2,705,953/female 2,599,717)
15-64 years: 67.2% (male 6,993,668/female 7,313,440)
65 years and over: 7.9% (male 720,219/female 950,916) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 30.8 years
male: 29.7 years
female: 31.8 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
0.934% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
 
Birth rate:
 
17.42 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
 
Death rate:
 
5.92 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
 
Net migration rate:
 
-2.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 14% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
COLOMBO (capital) 681,000 (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 9.7 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 149
male: 10.68 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 75.73 years
country comparison to the world: 81
male: 72.21 years
female: 79.38 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
2.2 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
2,800 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne disease: dengue fever and chikungunya
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 10% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 92% of population
total: 91% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 8% of population
total: 9% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Sri Lankan(s)
adjective: Sri Lankan
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Sinhalese 73.8%, Sri Lankan Moors 7.2%, Indian Tamil 4.6%, Sri Lankan Tamil 3.9%, other 0.5%, unspecified 10% (2001 census provisional data)
 
Religions:
 
Buddhist 69.1%, Muslim 7.6%, Hindu 7.1%, Christian 6.2%, unspecified 10% (2001 census provisional data)
 
Languages:
 
Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8%
note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.7%
male: 92.3%
female: 89.1% (2001 census)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2004)
 
Education expenditures:
 
NA

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