Vietnam Physical Map

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Physical Map: Defined
In addition to country borders, major cities and significant bodies of water, Physical Maps indicate the location of landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. This type of map also displays major cities and regions. Physical Maps are commonly used to see elevation and land contours as well as major rivers and lakes.
Vietnam

page last updated on September 26, 2011


Introduction :: Vietnam
Background:
 
The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by Communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the Communist North and anti-Communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under Communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies, the persecution and mass exodus of individuals - many of them successful South Vietnamese merchants - and growing international isolation. However, since the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986, Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The Communist leaders, however, maintain control on political expression and have resisted outside calls to improve human rights. The country continues to experience small-scale protests from various groups, the vast majority connected to land-use issues, calls for increased political space and the lack of equitable mechanisms for resolving disputes. Various ethnic minorities, such as the Montagnards of the Central Highlands and the Khmer Krom in the southern delta region, have also held protests.
Geography :: Vietnam
Location:
 
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, as well as China, Laos, and Cambodia
 
Geographic coordinates:
 
16 10 N, 107 50 E
 
Map references:
 
Southeast Asia
 
Area:
 
total: 331,210 sq km
country comparison to the world: 66
land: 310,070 sq km
water: 21,140 sq km
 
Area - comparative:
 
slightly larger than New Mexico
 
Land boundaries:
 
total: 4,639 km
border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km
 
Coastline:
 
3,444 km (excludes islands)
 
Maritime claims:
 
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 
Climate:
 
tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
 
Terrain:
 
low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
 
Elevation extremes:
 
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Fan Si Pan 3,144 m
 
Natural resources:
 
phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower
 
Land use:
 
arable land: 20.14%
permanent crops: 6.93%
other: 72.93% (2005)
 
Irrigated land:
 
46,000 sq km (2008)
 
Total renewable water resources:
 
891.2 cu km (1999)
 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
 
total: 71.39 cu km/yr (8%/24%/68%)
per capita: 847 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Natural hazards:
 
occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
 
Environment - current issues:
 
logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
 
Environment - international agreements:
 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Geography - note:
 
extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
People :: Vietnam
Population:
 
90,549,390 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
 
Age structure:
 
0-14 years: 25.2% (male 11,945,354/female 10,868,610)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 31,301,879/female 31,419,306)
65 years and over: 5.5% (male 1,921,652/female 3,092,589) (2011 est.)
 
Median age:
 
total: 27.8 years
male: 26.8 years
female: 28.9 years (2011 est.)
 
Population growth rate:
 
1.077% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
 
Birth rate:
 
17.07 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
 
Death rate:
 
5.96 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
 
Net migration rate:
 
-0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
 
Urbanization:
 
urban population: 30% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Major cities - population:
 
Ho Chi Minh City 5.976 million; HANOI (capital) 2.668 million; Haiphong 1.941 million; Da Nang 807,000 (2009)
 
Sex ratio:
 
at birth: 1.117 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Infant mortality rate:
 
total: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 94
male: 21.27 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Life expectancy at birth:
 
total population: 72.18 years
country comparison to the world: 129
male: 69.72 years
female: 74.92 years (2011 est.)
 
Total fertility rate:
 
1.91 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
 
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
 
0.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
 
280,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
 
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
 
14,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
 
Major infectious diseases:
 
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and plague
water contact disease: leptospirosis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
 
Drinking water source:
 
improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 92% of population
total: 94% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 8% of population
total: 6% of population (2008)
 
Sanitation facility access:
 
improved:
urban: 94% of population
rural: 67% of population
total: 75% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6% of population
rural: 33% of population
total: 25% of population (2008)
 
Nationality:
 
noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective: Vietnamese
 
Ethnic groups:
 
Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, others 5.3% (2009 census)
 
Religions:
 
Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8% (1999 census)
 
Languages:
 
Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
 
Literacy:
 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94%
male: 96.1%
female: 92% (2009 census)
 
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
 
total: 10 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2001)
 
Education expenditures:
 
5.3% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 49

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